French. Abbreviation for Appellation d’origine contrôlée (controlled designation of origin)
German. Abbreviation for Amtliche Prüfnummer which is Germany’s attempt to reduce massive confusion generated from most German wine labels. It is a unique, official number designating region, village, estate, unique bottling number, and year of tasting (usually the year after the vintage).
There are four major acids found in wine: tartaric, malic, lactic, and citric. Acid is identifiable by the crisp, fresh character it imparts to a wine’s palate. Too much can lead to a sharp, sour taste; too little can leave a wine flabby and out of balance.
The quality of tartness, sourness, and sharpness gives a wine its crispness and vitality. A proper balance must be struck with the other elements of a wine, or else the wine may be said to be too sharp (having disproportionately high levels of acidity) or too flat (having disproportionately low levels of acidity).
A wine tasting term for the taste left on the palate after a wine has been swallowed.
A barrel, often made of oak, used to age wine or distilled spirits.
Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is produced by the action of natural or added yeast on grape sugars during fermentation.
Various substitutes used in the wine industry for sealing wine bottles in place of traditional cork closures.
Grape varieties resulting from crossbreeding American and European grapevines.
The branch of botany concerned with the identification and classification of grapevines. Traditionally this was done by comparing the shape and color of vine leaves and grape berries. It has been revolutionized by DNA fingerprinting.
A type of ceramic vase, used for transporting and storing wine in ancient times.
The portion of wine in an aging barrel that is lost to evaporation.
Phenolic pigments that give red wine its color.
The smell of wine. The term is generally applied to younger wines, while the term bouquet is reserved for more aged wines.
A natural component found in wine that is sometimes added to prevent oxidation from occurring. If ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) has been added, the wine label will show Antioxidant 300 added.
Describes a harsh, dry, mouth-puckering sensation, usually due to high levels of tannin or acids present in red wines (and some whites).
Abbreviation for the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, a United States government agency which is primarily responsible for the regulation of wines sold and produced in the United States.
Generally meant to indicate a wine that has flavors that are closed. In other words, without strong recognizable varietal or oak characters.