Calcareous soils are alkaline, composed of calcium carbonate.

Certain California wines for which consumers and others pay higher prices than those of Bordeaux’s First Growths (Premiers Crus).

The above-ground parts of the vine, especially the shoots and leaves.

A range of viticulture techniques used to manipulate the vine canopy. This is done for vine shape, control the amount of sunlight and airflow to promote healthy grapes.


The thick cap of grape skins floating on top of the fermenting red wine.

The plastic or foil that covers the cork and part of the neck of a wine bottle.

The gas produced during fermentation which is responsible for the bubbles in sparkling wines.

Carbonic maceration is fermenting whole (uncrushed) grapes 

To age wine for the purpose of improvement or storage. Cellaring may occur in any area which is cool (12-15° Celsius).

A wine shed, or other storage places above ground, used for storing casks, common in Bordeaux. Usually, different types of wine are kept in separate sheds.

Champagne is a sparkling wine made by the Méthode Champenoise. Sparkling wine may only be called Champagne if it comes from the Champagne region of France.

A piece of stemware having a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl on top.

A winemaking process where sugar is added to the must. This is often done when grapes have not ripened adequately.

The Charmat or bulk process is a method where sparkling wines receive their secondary fermentation in large tanks, rather than individual bottles as seen in Méthode Champenoise.

Generally, a winery in Bordeaux, although the term is sometimes used for wineries in other parts of the world, such as the Barossa Valley.

Describes rich, tannic wines that seem to be thick and full in the mouth. A positive quality in many red wines.

British name for Bordeaux wine. Is also a semi-generic term for red wine in a similar style to that of Bordeaux.

To make a wine clear through fining, filtration and refrigeration.

In Australia, wine bottled without a commercial label, usually sold cheaply in bulk quantities.

A grape clone is a propagated grapevine that is genetically identical to its mother plant.

An excessively sweet wine that may seem to be out of balance due to low acidity.

A mixture of red and white sparkling wine that has high sugar content.

A winemaking process where wine is chilled to near freezing temperatures for several weeks to encourage the precipitation of tartrate crystals.

In wine, an extremely important indicator of quality and condition. Darker colors in whites usually indicate older wines, while red wines tend to turn a tawny, brick red color with age. Related wine term: Clarity.

A wine bottle stopper made from the thick outer bark of the cork oak tree.

A type of wine fault describing undesirable aromas and flavors in wine often attributed to mold growth on chlorine-bleached corks.

A wine with an off-flavor caused by trichloroanisole (TCA) in the cork. Generally described as moldy, it affects about 3% of wines worldwide.

A tool, comprising a pointed metallic helix attached to a handle, for drawing corks from bottles.

See: Fruit wine

Semi-sparkling wine; slightly effervescent. Also called frizzante.

French sparkling wine not made in Champagne region.

Sediment, generally potassium bitartrate, adheres to the inside of a wine bottle.

Wines for which committed buyers will pay large sums of money.

Another term for a grape variety.

A large vat used for fermentation.

The pressing, or a blending of several wines.