The contact of grape skins with the must during fermentation, extracting phenolic compounds including tannins, anthocyanins, and aroma.
A wine showing Madeira-like (oxidized) flavor. Also used to describe a white wine that is past its prime.
A bottle holding 1.5 liters, the equivalent of two regular wine bottles.
A double carboxylic acid that adds sharpness to wine. Undesirable in high concentrations it is often reduced through malolactic fermentation to lactic acid.
A secondary fermentation that converts malic acid into softer lactic acid. Adds complexity to Chardonnay and smoothness to reds such as Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot.
French for fruit skins. See pomace.
A qualification (not an academic degree) conferred by The Institute of Masters of Wine, which is located in the United Kingdom.
A light German wine flavored with sweet woodruff (herb) in addition to strawberries or other fruit.
A wine-like alcoholic beverage made of fermented honey and water rather than grape juice.
Wine show awards for well-made wines. International and capital city wine shows are the most reliable indicators of quality. Gold medals are awarded to wines attaining 18.5 points or more (out of 20 points); silver medals,17.0 to 18.4; and bronze, 15.5-16.9.
Yeast reacting with lees causing a mousey smell.
The traditional French method of producing sparkling wine, where the wine goes through secondary fermentation in the bottle in which it is eventually sold.
A large bottle holding six litres, the equivalent of eight regular wine bottles.
The controlled exposure of wine to small amounts of oxygen in the attempt to reduce the length of time required for maturation.
A wine tasting term for the feel and taste of a wine when held in the mouth.
A French term referring to a viticultural problem in which grape bunches contain berries of greatly differing sizes and levels of maturity. Caused by cool weather during flowering.
French for bottled at the winery, usually in Bordeaux.
Moraine is soil, rock, and other debris deposited by glacial action (glacial drift).
A French sparkling wine not made in the Champagne region.
A gummy substance produced by certain plants.
A wine that is spiced, heated and served as a punch.
Unfermented grape juice, including pips, skins, and stalks. Also, call mash.
The level of fermentable sugars in the must and the resultant alcohol content, if all the sugar was converted to ethanol.